C. S. Lewis

Clive Staples "Jack" Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. Lewis is known for his work on medieval literature, Christian apologetics, literary criticism, and fiction. He is best known today for his series The Chronicles of Narnia.

Lewis was a close friend of J. R. R. Tolkien, the author of The Lord of the Rings. Both authors were leading figures in the English faculty at Oxford University and in the informal Oxford literary group known as the "Inklings". According to his memoir Surprised by Joy, Lewis had been baptised in the Church of Ireland at birth, but fell away from his faith during his adolescence. Owing to the influence of Tolkien and other friends, at about the age of 30, Lewis re-converted to Christianity, becoming "a very ordinary layman of the Church of England" (Lewis 1952, p. 6). His conversion had a profound effect on his work, and his wartime radio broadcasts on the subject of Christianity brought him wide acclaim. Later in his life he married the American writer Joy Gresham, who died of bone cancer four years later at the age of 45.

Lewis's works have been translated into more than 30 languages and sell more than a million copies a year. The books that comprise The Chronicles of Narnia have sold more than 100 million copies. Many stage and screen adaptations of Lewis's works have also been produced, the most notable of which is the 2005 Disney film adaptation of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

[edit] Childhood
Clive Staples Lewis was born in Belfast, Ireland, on November 29, 1898. His father was Albert James Lewis (1863–1929), a solicitor whose father, Richard, had come to Ireland from Wales. His mother was Flora Augusta Lewis née Hamilton (1862–1908), the daughter of a Church of Ireland (Anglican) priest. He had one older brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis (Warnie). At the age of four, shortly after his dog Jacksie was hit by a car, Lewis announced that his name was now Jacksie. At first he would answer to no other name, but later accepted Jacks which became Jack, the name by which he was known to friends and family for the rest of his life. At six his family moved into "Little Lea", the house the elder Mr. Lewis built for Mrs. Lewis, in the Strandtown area of East Belfast.

Little LeaLewis was initially schooled by private tutors before being sent to the Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire, in 1908, the same year (and very shortly after) his mother died of cancer. Lewis's brother had already enrolled there three years previously. The school was closed not long afterwards due to a lack of pupils — the headmaster Robert "Oldie" Capron was soon after committed to an insane asylum. Tellingly, in Surprised By Joy, Lewis would later nickname the school "Belsen". There is some speculation by biographer Alan Jacobs that the atmosphere at Wynyard greatly traumatized Lewis and was responsible for the development of "mildly sadomasochistic fantasies". (Gopnik 2005) Four of the letters that the adolescent Lewis wrote to his life-long friend Arthur Greeves (out of an overall correspondence of nearly 300 letters) were signed "Philomastix" ("whip-lover"), and two of those also detailed women he would like to spank. (Hooper 1979, pp. 160–170)

After Wynyard closed, Lewis attended Campbell College in the east of Belfast about a mile from his home, but he left after a few months due to respiratory problems. As a result of his illness, Lewis was sent to the health-resort town of Malvern, Worcestershire, where he attended the preparatory school Cherbourg House (called "Chartres" in Lewis's autobiography).

In September 1913 Lewis enrolled at Malvern College, where he would remain until the following June. It was during this time at the age of 15 that he abandoned his childhood Christian faith and became an atheist, becoming interested in mythology and the occult.[1]Later he would describe "Wyvern" (as he styled the school in his autobiography) as so singularly focused on increasing one's social status that he came to see the homosexual relationships between older and younger pupils as "the one oasis (though green only with weeds and moist only with fetid water) in the burning desert of competitive ambition. […] A perversion was the only thing left through which something spontaneous and uncalculated could creep" (Lewis 1966, p. 107). After leaving Malvern he moved to study privately with William T. Kirkpatrick, his father's old tutor and former headmaster of Lurgan College.

As a young boy, Lewis had a fascination with anthropomorphic animals, falling in love with Beatrix Potter's stories and often writing and illustrating his own animal stories. He and his brother Warnie together created the world of Boxen, inhabited and run by animals. Lewis loved to read, and as his father’s house was filled with books, he felt that finding a book he had not read was as easy as "finding a blade of grass."

As a teenager, he was wonderstruck by the songs and legends of what he called Northernness, the ancient literature of Scandinavia preserved in the Icelandic sagas. These legends intensified a longing he had within, a deep desire he would later call "joy". He also grew to love nature—the beauty of nature reminded him of the stories of the North, and the stories of the North reminded him of the beauties of nature. His writing in his teenage years moved away from the tales of Boxen, and he began to use different art forms (epic poetry and opera) to try to capture his newfound interest in Norse mythology and the natural world. Studying with Kirkpatrick (“The Great Knock”, as Lewis afterwards called him) instilled in him a love of Greek literature and mythology, and sharpened his skills in debate and clear reasoning.

[edit] World War I

Lewis in 1919, at the age of 21Having won a scholarship to University College, Oxford in 1916, Lewis enlisted the following year in the British Army as World War I raged on, and was commissioned an officer in the third Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry. Lewis arrived at the front line in the Somme Valley in France on his nineteenth birthday, and experienced trench warfare.

On April 15, 1917, Lewis was wounded during the Battle of Arras, and suffered some depression during his convalescence, due in part to missing his Irish home. On his recovery in October, he was assigned to duty in Andover, England. He was discharged in December 1918, and soon returned to his studies. Lewis received a First in Honour Moderations (Greek and Latin Literature) in 1920, a First in Greats (Philosophy and Ancient History) in 1922, and a First in English in 1923.

While being trained for the army Lewis shared a room and became close friends with another cadet, "Paddy" Moore. The two had made a mutual pact that if either died during the war, the survivor would take care of both their families. Paddy was killed in action in 1918 and Lewis kept his promise. Paddy had earlier introduced Lewis to his mother, Jane King Moore, and a friendship very quickly sprang up between Lewis, who was eighteen when they met, and Jane, who was forty-five. The friendship with Mrs. Moore was particularly important to Lewis while he was recovering from his wounds in hospital, as his father, who had an almost pathological reluctance to break free from the routine of his Belfast practice, could not bring himself to visit him.

[edit] Jane Moore
Lewis had a close personal relationship with Jane Moore (1871/2–1951). Lewis made a pact with his friend and comrade Paddy Moore (1898–1918) that if one of them was killed in the War, the survivor would look after Lewis's father and Moore's mother. Keeping this promise, after Paddy's death in France, Lewis lived with and cared for Mrs Moore until she was hospitalized in the late 1940s. He routinely introduced her as his "mother", and referred to her as such in letters. Lewis, whose own mother had died when he was a child and whose father was distant and demanding, developed a deeply affectionate friendship with Mrs Moore. "All I can or need to say is that my earlier hostility to the emotions was very fully and variously avenged", he wrote of her in his autobiography. He also said to his friend George Sayer: "She was generous and taught me to be generous, too." The nature of their relationship is unclear: the speculation that they were at one time lovers has tempted some biographers, but remains unproven, and his stepson Douglas Gresham writes in his biography of Lewis that it will remain a mystery.

In December 1917 Lewis wrote in a letter to his childhood friend Arthur Greeves that Jane and Greeves were "the two people who matter most to me in the world."

In 1930, Lewis, Moore, her daughter Maureen and Warnie moved into "The Kilns", a house in the district of Headington Quarry on the outskirts of Oxford (now part of the suburb of Risinghurst). They all contributed financially to the purchase of the house, which passed to Maureen, then Lady Dunbar of Hempriggs, when Warren died in 1973.

Moore suffered from dementia in her later years and was eventually moved into a nursing home, where she died in 1951. Lewis visited her every day in this home until her death.

[edit] "My life"

Plaque on a park-bench in Bangor, County DownLewis experienced a certain cultural shock upon first arriving in England: "No Englishman will be able to understand my first impressions of England," Lewis wrote in Surprised by Joy. "The strange English accents with which I was surrounded seemed like the voices of demons. But what was worst was the English landscape … I have made up the quarrel since; but at that moment I conceived a hatred for England which took many years to heal."

From boyhood Lewis immersed himself firstly in Norse and Greek and then in Irish mythology and literature and expressed an interest in the Irish language, though he seems to have made little attempt to learn it. He developed a particular fondness for W. B. Yeats, in part because of Yeats’s use of Ireland’s Celtic heritage in poetry. In a letter to a friend Lewis wrote, "I have here discovered an author exactly after my own heart, whom I am sure you would delight in, W. B. Yeats. He writes plays and poems of rare spirit and beauty about our old Irish mythology." In 1921, Lewis had the opportunity to meet Yeats on two occasions, since Yeats had moved to Oxford.

Surprised to find his English peers indifferent to Yeats and the Celtic Revival movement, Lewis wrote: "I am often surprised to find how utterly ignored Yeats is among the men I have met: perhaps his appeal is purely Irish—if so, then thank the gods that I am Irish." Early in his career, Lewis considered sending his work to the major Dublin publishers, writing: "If I do ever send my stuff to a publisher, I think I shall try Maunsel, those Dublin people, and so tack myself definitely onto the Irish school." After his conversion to Christianity, his interests gravitated towards Christian spirituality and away from pagan Celtic mysticism.

Lewis occasionally expressed a somewhat tongue-in-cheek chauvinism toward the English. Describing an encounter with a fellow Irishman he wrote: "Like all Irish people who meet in England we ended by criticisms of the inevitable flippancy and dullness of the Anglo-Saxon race. After all, ami, there is no doubt that the Irish are the only people … I would not gladly live or die among another folk."

Due to his Oxford career Lewis did indeed live and die among another folk, and he often expressed regret at having to leave Ireland. Throughout his life, he sought out the company of his fellow Irish living in England and visited Northern Ireland regularly, even spending his honeymoon there (The Old Inn 2007). He called this "my Irish life".

[edit] Conversion to Christianity
Raised in a church-going family in the Church of Ireland, Lewis became an atheist at the age of 15. He remained an atheist until 31 years old.

His separation from Christianity began when he started to view his religion as a chore and as a duty; around this time he also gained an interest in the occult as his studies expanded to include such topics. Lewis quoted Lucretius as having one of the strongest arguments for atheism:

Nequaquam nobis divinitus esse paratam
Naturam rerum; tanta stat praedita culpa (Lucretius)
"Had God designed the world, it would not be
A world so frail and faulty as we see."
Though a self-proclaimed atheist at the time, Lewis later described his young self (in Surprised by Joy) as being paradoxically "very angry with God for not existing".

Lewis's interest in fantasy and mythology, especially in relation to the works of George MacDonald, was part of what turned him from atheism. In fact, MacDonald's position as a Christian fantasy writer was very influential on Lewis. This can be seen particularly well through this passage in The Great Divorce, chapter nine, when the semi-autobiographical main character meets MacDonald in Heaven:

…I tried, trembling, to tell this man all that his writings had done for me. I tried to tell how a certain frosty afternoon at Leatherhead Station when I had first bought a copy of Phantastes (being then about sixteen years old) had been to me what the first sight of Beatrice had been to Dante: Here begins the new life. I started to confess how long that Life had delayed in the region of imagination merely: how slowly and reluctantly I had come to admit that his Christendom had more than an accidental connexion with it, how hard I had tried not to see the true name of the quality which first met me in his books is Holiness. (Lewis 1946, pp. 66–67)

Influenced by arguments with his Oxford colleague and friend J. R. R. Tolkien, and by the book The Everlasting Man by Roman Catholic convert G. K. Chesterton, he slowly rediscovered Christianity. He fought greatly up to the moment of his conversion noting, "I came into Christianity kicking and screaming." He described his last struggle in Surprised by Joy:

You must picture me alone in that room in Magdalen, night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me. In the Trinity Term of 1929 I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all England. (Lewis 1966)

After his conversion to theism in 1929, Lewis converted to Christianity in 1931. Following a long discussion and late-night walk with his close friends Tolkien and Hugo Dyson, he records making a specific commitment to Christian belief while on his way to the zoo with his brother. He became a member of the Church of England — somewhat to the disappointment of the devout Catholic Tolkien, who had hoped he would convert to Roman Catholicism (Carpenter 2006).[2]

A committed Anglican, Lewis upheld a largely orthodox Anglican theology, though in his apologetic writings, he made an effort to avoid espousing any one denomination. In his later writings, some believe he proposed ideas such as purification of venial sins after death in purgatory (The Great Divorce) and mortal sin (The Screwtape Letters), which are generally considered to be Catholic teachings. Regardless, Lewis considered himself an entirely orthodox Anglican to the end of his life, reflecting that he had initially attended church only to receive communion and had been repelled by the hymns and the poor quality of the sermons. He later came to consider himself honoured by worshipping with men of faith who came in shabby clothes and work boots and who sang all the verses to all the hymns.

[edit] Joy Gresham

Joy GreshamIn Lewis's later life, he corresponded with and later met Joy Davidman Gresham, an American writer of Jewish background and also a convert from atheism to Christianity.[3] She was separated from her husband and came to England with her two sons, David and Douglas. Lewis at first regarded her as an agreeable intellectual companion and personal friend, and it was at least overtly on this level that he agreed to enter into a civil marriage contract with her so that she could continue to live in the UK. Lewis's brother Warnie wrote: "For Jack the attraction was at first undoubtedly intellectual. Joy was the only woman whom he had met… who had a brain which matched his own in suppleness, in width of interest, and in analytical grasp, and above all in humour and a sense of fun" (Haven 2006). However, after complaining of a painful hip, she was diagnosed with terminal bone cancer, and the relationship developed to the point that they sought a Christian marriage. Since she was divorced, this was not straightforward in the Church of England at the time, but a friend, the Rev. Peter Bide, performed the ceremony at Joy's hospital bed in 1956.

Joy's cancer soon went into a remarkable yet brief remission, and the couple lived as a family (together with Warren Lewis) until her eventual relapse and death in 1960. The year she died, the couple took a brief holiday in Greece and the Aegean in 1960; Lewis was fond of walking but not of travel, and this marked his only crossing of the English Channel after 1918. Lewis’s book A Grief Observed describes his experience of bereavement in such a raw and personal fashion that Lewis originally released it under the pseudonym N.W. Clerk to keep readers from associating the book with him. However, so many friends recommended the book to Lewis as a method for dealing with his own grief that he made his authorship public.

Lewis continued to raise Joy's two sons after her death. Douglas Gresham is an active Christian and remains involved in the affairs of the Lewis estate, though David Gresham returned to his mother's original Jewish faith. The two brothers are now estranged (Neven 2001).

[edit] Illness and death
In early June 1961, Lewis began experiencing medical problems and was diagnosed with inflammation of the kidneys which resulted in blood poisoning. His illness caused him to miss the autumn term at Cambridge, though his health gradually began improving in 1962 and he returned that April. Lewis's health continued to improve, and according to his friend George Sayer, Lewis was fully himself by the spring of 1963. However, on July 15, 1963 he fell ill and was admitted to hospital. The next day at 5:00 pm, Lewis suffered a heart attack and lapsed into a coma, unexpectedly awaking the following day at 2:00 pm. After he was discharged from hospital, Lewis returned to the Kilns though he was too ill to return to work. As a result, he resigned from his post at Cambridge in August. Lewis's condition continued to decline and in mid-November, he was diagnosed with end stage renal failure. On November 22, 1963, Lewis collapsed in his bedroom at 5:30 pm and died a few minutes later, exactly one week before what would have been his 65th birthday. He is buried in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Headington, Oxford (Friends of Holy Trinity Church).

Media coverage of his death was overshadowed by news of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, which occurred on the same day, as did the death of Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World. This coincidence was the inspiration for Peter Kreeft's book Between Heaven and Hell: A Dialog Somewhere Beyond Death with John F. Kennedy, C. S. Lewis, & Aldous Huxley (Kreeft 1982).

C. S. Lewis is commemorated on 22 November in the church calendar of the Episcopal Church.

[edit] Career

[edit] The scholar

Magdalen CollegeLewis taught as a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, for nearly thirty years, from 1925 to 1954, and later was the first Professor of Medieval and Renaissance Literature at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge. Using this position, he argued that there was no such thing as an English Renaissance. Much of his scholarly work concentrated on the later Middle Ages, especially its use of allegory. His The Allegory of Love (1936) helped reinvigorate the serious study of late medieval narratives like the Roman de la Rose. Lewis wrote several prefaces to old works of literature and poetry, like Layamon's Brut. His book "A Preface to Paradise Lost" is still one of the most valuable criticisms of that work. His last academic work, The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1964), is a summary of the medieval world view, the "discarded image" of the cosmos in his title.

Lewis was a prolific writer, and his circle of literary friends became an informal discussion society known as the "Inklings", including J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and his brother Warnie Lewis. At Oxford he was the tutor of, among many other undergraduates, poet John Betjeman, critic Kenneth Tynan, mystic Bede Griffiths, and Sufi scholar Martin Lings. Curiously, the religious and conservative Betjeman detested Lewis, whereas the anti-Establishment Tynan retained a life-long admiration for him (Tonkin 2005).

Of J. R. R. Tolkien, Lewis writes in Surprised by Joy:

When I began teaching for the English Faculty, I made two other friends, both Christians (these queer people seemed now to pop up on every side) who were later to give me much help in getting over the last stile. They were H.V.V. Dyson … and J.R.R. Tolkien. Friendship with the latter marked the breakdown of two old prejudices. At my first coming into the world I had been (implicitly) warned never to trust a Papist, and at my first coming into the English Faculty (explicitly) never to trust a philologist. Tolkien was both. (Lewis 1966, p. 173)

[edit] The author
In addition to his scholarly work, Lewis wrote a number of popular novels, including his science fiction Space Trilogy and his fantasy Narnia books, most dealing implicitly with Christian themes such as sin, the Fall, and redemption.

[edit] The Pilgrim's Regress
Main article: The Pilgrim's Regress
His first novel after becoming a Christian was The Pilgrim's Regress, his take on John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress which depicted his own experience with Christianity. The book was critically panned at the time, particularly for its esoteric nature—as to read it requires a close familiarity with classical sources.

In a footnote of the biography D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The Fight of Faith 1939–1981 by Iain Murray, Murray notes the following: "Lewis is said to have valued ML-J's appreciation and encouragement when the early edition of his Pilgrim's Regress was not selling well. Vincent Lloyd-Jones and Lewis knew each other well, being contemporaries at Oxford. ML-J met the author again and they had a long conversation when they found both themselves on the same boat to Ireland in 1953. On the later occasion, to the question, 'When are you going to write another book?', Lewis replied, 'When I understand the meaning of prayer'" (Murray 1990).

[edit] Space Trilogy
Main article: Space Trilogy
His Space Trilogy or Ransom Trilogy novels (also called the Cosmic Trilogy) dealt with what Lewis saw as the then-current dehumanizing trends in modern science fiction. The first book, Out of the Silent Planet, was apparently written following a conversation with his friend J. R. R. Tolkien about these trends; Lewis agreed to write a "space travel" story and Tolkien a "time travel" one. Tolkien’s story, "The Lost Road", a tale connecting his Middle-earth mythology and the modern world, was never completed. Lewis’s character of Ransom is based in part on Tolkien, a fact that Tolkien himself alludes to in his Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. The second novel, Perelandra, illustrates a new "Garden of Eden", a new "Adam and Eve", and a new "serpent figure" to tempt them. The story illustrates a hypothesis of what could have happened if "our Eve" would have resisted more firmly the temptation of the serpent. The last novel in the Trilogy also contains numerous references to Tolkien's fictional universe, and can be seen partially as a homage to Tolkien. The minor character Jules, from That Hideous Strength, is an obvious caricature of H. G. Wells. Many of the ideas presented in the books, particularly in That Hideous Strength, are dramatizations of arguments made more formally in Lewis’s The Abolition of Man.

Another science fiction novel, The Dark Tower, was begun, but remained unfinished; it is not clear whether it was intended as part of the same series as the completed novels. The manuscript was eventually published in 1977, though controversy arose about its authenticity.

[edit] The Chronicles of Narnia

The Mountains of MourneMain article: The Chronicles of Narnia
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children and is considered a classic of children's literature. Written between 1949 and 1954 and illustrated by Pauline Baynes, the series is Lewis's most popular work having sold over 100 million copies in 41 languages (Kelly 2006)(Guthmann 2005). It has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, stage, and cinema. The series has been published in several different orders, and the preferred reading order for the series is often debated among fans; though Douglas Gresham has stated that Lewis preferred that they be read in "Narnian chronology", not the order in which they were published (Drennan 1999).

The books contain many allusions to Christian ideas which are easily accessible to younger readers; however, the books are not weighty, and can be read for their adventure, colour and richness of ideas alone. Because of this, they have become favourites of children and adults, Christians and non-Christians. In addition to Christian themes, Lewis also borrows characters from Greek and Roman mythology as well as traditional British and Irish fairy tales. Lewis reportedly based his depiction of Narnia on the geography and scenery of the Mourne Mountains and "that part of Rostrevor which overlooks Carlingford Lough" (Guardian Unlimited 2005). Lewis cited George MacDonald's Christian fairy tales as an influence in writing the series.

The Chronicles of Narnia present the adventures of children who play central roles in the unfolding history of the fictional realm of Narnia, a place where animals talk, magic is common, and good battles evil. In the majority of the books, children from our world find themselves transported to Narnia by a magical portal. Once there, they are quickly involved in setting some wrong to right with the help of the lion Aslan who is the central character of the series.

[edit] Other works
Lewis wrote a number of works on Heaven and Hell. One of these, The Great Divorce, is a short novella. A few residents of Hell take a bus ride to Heaven, where they are met by people from Earth. The proposition is that they can stay (in which case they can call the place where they had come from “Purgatory”, instead of “Hell”): but many find it not to their taste. The title is a reference to William Blake's The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, a concept that Lewis found a "disastrous error" (Lewis 1946, p. vii). This work deliberately echoes two other more famous works with a similar theme: the Divine Comedy of Dante Aligheri, and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Another short work, The Screwtape Letters, consists of letters of advice from a senior demon, Screwtape, to his nephew Wormwood, on the best ways to tempt a particular human and secure his damnation. Lewis’s last novel was Till We Have Faces — many believe (as he did) that it is his most mature and masterful work of fiction, but it was never a popular success. It is a retelling of the myth of Cupid and Psyche from the unusual perspective of Psyche's sister. It is deeply concerned with religious ideas, but the setting is entirely pagan, and the connections with specific Christian beliefs are left implicit.

Before Lewis’s conversion to Christianity, he published two books: Spirits in Bondage, a collection of poems, and Dymer, a single narrative poem. Both were published under the pen name Clive Hamilton.

Lewis penned A Grief Observed after the death of his wife (see Joy Gresham above).

[edit] The Christian apologist
In addition to his career as an English professor and an author of fiction, Lewis is regarded by many as one of the most influential Christian apologists of his time; Mere Christianity was voted best book of the twentieth century by Christianity Today magazine in 2000. Lewis was very much interested in presenting a reasonable case for the truth of Christianity. Mere Christianity, The Problem of Pain, and Miracles were all concerned, to one degree or another, with refuting popular objections to Christianity. He also became known as a popular lecturer and broadcaster, and some of his writing (including much of Mere Christianity) originated as scripts for radio talks or lectures (Lewis 1952, p. v).

Due to Lewis's approach to religious belief as a skeptic, and his following conversion, he has become popularly known as "The Apostle to the Skeptics." Consequently, his books on Christianity examine common difficulties in Christianity, such as "How could a good God allow pain to exist in the world?", which he examined in detail in The Problem of Pain.

A 1948 loss in a debate with Elizabeth Anscombe led to his reevaluating his role as an apologist,[4] and his future works concentrated on devotional literature and children's books.

Lewis also wrote an autobiography titled Surprised by Joy, which places special emphasis on his own conversion. (It was written before he met his wife, Joy Gresham; the title of the book came from the first line of a poem by William Wordsworth.) His essays and public speeches on Christian belief, many of which were collected in God in the Dock and The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses, remain popular today.

His most famous works, the Chronicles of Narnia, contain many strong Christian messages and are often considered allegory. Lewis, an expert on the subject of allegory, maintained that the books were not allegory, and preferred to call the Christian aspects of them "suppositional". As Lewis wrote in a letter to a Mrs. Hook in December of 1958:

If Aslan represented the immaterial Deity in the same way in which Giant Despair [a character in The Pilgrim's Progress] represents despair, he would be an allegorical figure. In reality however he is an invention giving an imaginary answer to the question, 'What might Christ become like, if there really were a world like Narnia and He chose to be incarnate and die and rise again in that world as He actually has done in ours?' This is not allegory at all. (Martindale & Root 1990)

[edit] Trilemma
Main article: Lewis's trilemma
In the book Mere Christianity, Lewis famously criticized the idea that Jesus was merely a human being, albeit a great moral teacher:

I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: I’m ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don’t accept his claim to be God. That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic — on the level with the man who says he is a poached egg — or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse. You can shut him up for a fool, you can spit at him and kill him as a demon or you can fall at his feet and call him Lord and God, but let us not come with any patronising nonsense about his being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to. (Lewis 1952, p. 43)

Lewis, who did not invent this argument but did much to popularise it, argues that Jesus made many claims to divinity, either explicitly or implicitly. As a result, he said, there are only three possible options:

Jesus was telling falsehoods and knew it, and so he was a liar.
Jesus was telling falsehoods but believed he was telling the truth, and so he was insane.
Jesus was telling the truth, and so he was divine.
Lewis’s argument was used by the Christian apologist Josh McDowell in his book More Than a Carpenter (McDowell 2001). The term "trilemma" (which Lewis did not use) is often used to refer to this argument. Although widely repeated in Christian apologetic literature, it has been largely ignored by professional theologians and biblical scholars.[5]

Lewis's trilemma appeared at a time when scholars such as Albert Schweitzer and Rudolf Bultmann had portrayed Jesus's miracles and resurrection as myths. The concept that Jesus was not God but a wise man had gained ground in academic circles. The trilemma opposes the idea that Jesus was not divine, without relying on miracles for proof. In accepting the premise that Jesus had claimed divinity, he contradicted a viewpoint, popularized by H. G. Wells in his Outline of History, that Jesus had made no such claim.

(Lewis restated the trilemma's structure in the first Narnia book, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, when Professor Kirke advises the young heroes that their sister's claims of a magical world must logically be taken as either lies, madness, or truth.)

[edit] Universal morality
One of the main theses in Lewis' apologia is that there is a common morality known throughout humanity. In the first five chapters of Mere Christianity Lewis discusses the idea that people have a standard of behaviour to which they expect other people to adhere. This standard has been called Universal Morality or Natural Law. Lewis claims that all over the earth people know about this law and that they break it. He goes on to claim that there must be someone or something behind such a universal set of principles. (Lindskoog 2001b, p. 144)

These then are the two points that I wanted to make. First, that human beings, all over the earth, have this curious idea that they ought to behave in a certain way, and can not really get rid of it. Secondly, that they do not in fact behave in that way. They know the Law of Nature; they break it. These two facts are the foundation of all clear thinking about ourselves and the universe we live in. (Lewis 1952, p. 21)

Lewis also portrays Universal Morality in his works of fiction. In The Chronicles of Narnia he describes Universal Morality as the "Deep magic" which everyone knew. (Lindskoog 2001b, p. 146)

In the second chapter of Mere Christianity Lewis recognizes that "many people find it difficult to understand what this Law of Human Nature [...] is". And he responds first to the idea "that the Moral Law is simply our herd instinct" and second to the idea "that the Moral Law is simply a social convention". In responding to the second idea Lewis notes that people often complain that one set of moral ideas is better than another, but that this actually argues for there existing some "Real Morality" to which they are comparing other moralities. Finally he notes that sometimes differences in moral codes are exaggerated by people who confuse differences in beliefs about morality with differences in beliefs about facts:

I have met people who exaggerate the differences, because they have not distinguished between differences of morality and differences of belief about facts. For example, one man said to me, "Three hundred years ago people in England were putting witches to death. Was that what you call the Rule of Human Nature or Right Conduct?" But surely the reason we do not execute witches is that we do not believe there are such things. If we did—if we really thought that there were people going about who had sold themselves to the devil and received supernatural powers from him in return and were using these powers to kill their neighbours or drive them mad or bring bad weather, surely we would all agree that if anyone deserved the death penalty, then these filthy quislings did. There is no difference of moral principle here: the difference is simply about matter of fact. It may be a great advance in knowledge not to believe in witches: there is no moral advance in not executing them when you do not think they are there. You would not call a man humane for ceasing to set mousetraps if he did so because he believed there were no mice in the house. (Lewis 1952, p. 26)

[edit] Legacy

A statue of Digory Kirke (C.S. Lewis's fictional alter ego from The Magician's Nephew) in front of the wardrobe of his book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in East Belfast, Northern IrelandLewis continues to attract a wide readership. Readers of his fiction are often unaware of what Lewis considered the Christian themes of his works. His Christian apologetics are read and quoted by followers of a wide range of religious denominations, including Roman Catholics and Mormons (Pratt 1998).

Lewis has been the subject of several biographies, a few of which were written by some of his close friends, such as Roger Lancelyn Green and George Sayer); at least one play dramatizes his life; and a 1993 film, Shadowlands, based on an original stage and television play, fictionalises his relationship with Joy Gresham.

Many books have been inspired by Lewis, including A Severe Mercy by his correspondent Sheldon Vanauken. The Chronicles of Narnia have been particularly influential. Modern children's literature such as Daniel Handler's A Series of Unfortunate Events, Eoin Colfer's Artemis Fowl, Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials, and J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter have been more or less influenced by Lewis's series (Hilliard 2005). Pullman, a critic of Lewis, considers him a negative influence (Ezard 2002). Authors of adult fantasy literature such as Tim Powers have also testified to being influenced by Lewis's work.

Most of Lewis’s posthumous work has been edited by his literary executor, Walter Hooper. An independent Lewis scholar, the late Kathryn Lindskoog, argued that Hooper's scholarship is not reliable and that he has made false statements and attributed forged works to Lewis (Lindskoog 2001a).

According to Lindskoog's research, after Lewis's death in 1963, Hooper began portraying himself as having been Lewis's "companion secretary." Although Hooper's only association with Lewis was between early June and late August of 1963, his published introductions to Lewis's works give the impression he knew Lewis for many years and had a very close relationship with him. Lindskoog's research and arguments are laid out in Sleuthing C.S. Lewis: More Light in the Shadowlands.

A bronze statue of Lewis's character, Digory, from The Magician's Nephew, looking into a wardrobe stands in Belfast's Holywood Arches in front of the Holywood Road Library (BBC News 2004).

Lewis was strongly opposed to the creation of live-action versions of his works due to the technology at the time. His major concern was that the anthropomorphic animal characters "when taken out of narrative into actual visibility, always turn into buffoonery or nightmare". This was said in the context of the 1950s, when technology would not allow the special effects required to make a coherent, robust film version of Narnia. Whether or not Lewis would be happy with the CGI creations of The Chronicles of Narnia film series, naturally, cannot be known.

The song "The Earth Will Shake" performed by Thrice is based on one of his poems, and the band Sixpence None the Richer are named after a passage in Mere Christianity. The Great Divorce has served as the inspiration for at least three pieces of music: a string quartet piece entitled The Great Divorce by Matt Slocum of Sixpence None the Richer, the song "The High Countries" by Caedmon's Call on their album Back Home, and Phil Woodward's 2007 rock album Ghosts and Spirits. New Zealand Christian singer-songwriter Brooke Fraser also included a song entitled "C.S. Lewis Song" in her latest album "Albertine" which contains passages from his writing.[6] Christian alternative rock band Poor Old Lu are so named because of a sentence in The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe. Another alternative rock band, Future of Forestry, got its name from Lewis's poem The Future of Forestry. 2nd Chapter of Acts recorded an album entitled The Roar of Love, inspired by the first of the Narnia stories. British band The Waterboys quoted from the final Narnia Book, The Last Battle in their 1984 song "Church Not Made with Hands". Later, on their 1990 album Room to Roam, The Waterboys included a song entitled "Further Up, Further In", the title taken from the last chapter of The Last Battle.

The movie The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe was based on his first installment in the Narnia series of the same name, and movies based on two other books he wrote, Prince Caspian and The Screwtape Letters are both to be released sometime in 2008.

Several C. S. Lewis Societies exist around the world, including one which was founded in Oxford in 1982 (see their website) to discuss papers on the life and works of Lewis and the other Inklings, and generally appreciate all things Lewisian. His name is also used by a variety of Christian organizations, often with a concern for maintaining conservative Christian values in education or literary studies.

[edit] Criticism
The Chronicles of Narnia have variously been depicted as featuring religious propaganda, misogyny, racism, and emotional sadism (BBC News 2005).

For more details on this topic, see The Chronicles of Narnia#Criticism.
Criticism of Lewis's work is not limited to his Narnia books. In Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, former preacher turned atheist activist Dan Barker discusses Mere Christianity and takes issue with Lewis's belief in absolute morality, arguing "any morality which is based on an unyielding structure above and beyond humanity is dangerous to human beings. History is filled with examples of what religious 'morality' has done to worsen our lot" (Barker 1992).

Lewis's Christian apologetics have also been extensively criticised by John Beversluis in C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion (1985, rev. 2007) and by S. T. Joshi in God's Defenders: What They Believe and Why They Are Wrong (2003). N. T. Wright observed that the 'trilemma' argument "doesn’t work as history, and it backfires dangerously when historical critics question his reading of the Gospels."[7]

[edit] Bibliography
[edit] Nonfiction
The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition (1936)
Rehabilitations and other essays (1939) — with two essays not included in Essay Collection (2000)
The Personal Heresy: A Controversy (with E. M. W. Tillyard, 1939)
The Problem of Pain (1940)
A Preface to Paradise Lost (1942)
The Abolition of Man (1943)
Beyond Personality (1944)
Miracles: A Preliminary Study (1947, revised 1960)
Arthurian Torso (1948; on Charles Williams's poetry)
Mere Christianity (1952; based on radio talks of 1941–1944)
English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama (1954); 1975 reprint ISBN 0198812981;
Major British Writers, Vol I (1954), Contribution on Edmund Spenser
Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life (1955; autobiography)
Reflections on the Psalms (1958)
The Four Loves (1960)
Studies in Words (1960)
An Experiment in Criticism (1961)
A Grief Observed (1961; first published under the pseudonym «N. W. Clerk»)
They Asked for a Paper: Papers and Addresses(1962)
Selections from Layamon's Brut (ed. G L Brook, 1963 Oxford University Press) introduction
Prayer: Letters to Malcolm (1964)
The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1964)
Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1966) — not included in Essay Collection (2000)
Spenser's Images of Life (ed. Alastair Fowler, 1967)
Letters to an American Lady (1967)
Christian Reflections (1967; essays and papers)
Selected Literary Essays (1969) — not included in Essay Collection (2000)
God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics (1970), = Undeceptions (1971) — all included in Essay Collection (2000)
Of Other Worlds (1982; essays) — with one essay not included in Essay Collection
Present Concerns (1986; essays)
All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis 1922–27 (1993)
Essay Collection: Literature, Philosophy and Short Stories (2000)
Essay Collection: Faith, Christianity and the Church (2000)
Collected Letters, Vol. I: Family Letters 1905–1931 (2000)
Collected Letters, Vol. II: Books, Broadcasts and War 1931–1949 (2004)
Collected Letters, Vol. III: Narnia, Cambridge and Joy 1950–1963 (2007)
The Business Of Heaven:Daily Readings From C.S.Lewis ed. Walter Hooper, 1984, Harvest Book, Harcourt, Inc.
[edit] Fiction
The Pilgrim's Regress (1933)
Space Trilogy
Out of the Silent Planet (1938)
Perelandra (aka Voyage to Venus) (1943)
That Hideous Strength (1946)
The Screwtape Letters (1942)
The Great Divorce (1945)
The Chronicles of Narnia
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)
Prince Caspian (1951)
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952)
The Silver Chair (1953)
The Horse and His Boy (1954)
The Magician's Nephew (1955)
The Last Battle (1956)
Till We Have Faces (1956)
Screwtape Proposes a Toast (1961) (an addition to The Screwtape Letters)
Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer (1964)
The Dark Tower (1977)
Boxen: The Imaginary World of the Young C. S. Lewis (ed. Walter Hooper, 1985)
[edit] Poetry
Spirits in Bondage (1919; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)
Dymer (1926; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)
Narrative Poems (ed. Walter Hooper, 1969; includes Dymer)
The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis (ed. Walter Hooper, 1994; includes Spirits in Bondage)
[edit] As editor
George MacDonald: An Anthology (1947)
Essays Presented to Charles Williams (1947)

[edit] Secondary works
John Beversluis, C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. Eerdmans, 1985. ISBN 0-8028-0046-7
Humphrey Carpenter, The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams and their friends. George Allen & Unwin, 1978. ISBN 0-04-809011-5
Joe R. Christopher & Joan K. Ostling, C. S. Lewis: An Annotated Checklist of Writings about him and his Works. Kent State University Press, n.d. (1972). ISBN 0-87338-138-6
James Como, Branches to Heaven: The Geniuses of C. S. Lewis, Spence, 1998.
James Como, Remembering C. S. Lewis (3rd ed. of C. S. Lewis at the Breakfast Table). Ignatius, 2006
Michael Coren, The Man Who Created Narnia: The Story of C.S. Lewis. Eerdmans Pub Co, Reprint edition 1996. ISBN 0-8028-3822-7
Christopher Derrick, C. S. Lewis and the Church of Rome: A Study in Proto-Ecumenism. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. 1981. ISBN 978-9991718507
Colin Duriez and David Porter, The Inklings Handbook: The Lives, Thought and Writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. 2001, ISBN 1-902694-13-9
Colin Duriez, Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. Paulist Press, 2003. ISBN 1-58768-026-2
Bruce L. Edwards, Not a Tame Lion: The Spiritual World of Narnia. Tyndale. 2005. ISBN 1414303815
Bruce L. Edwards, Further Up and Further In: Understanding C. S. Lewis’s The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Broadman and Holman, 2005. ISBN 0805440704
Bruce L. Edwards, General Editor, C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and Legacy. 4 Vol. Praeger Perspectives, 2007. ISBN 0275991164
Bruce L. Edwards, Editor. The Taste of the Pineapple: Essays on C. S. Lewis as Reader, Critic, and Imaginative Writer. The Popular Press, 1988. ISBN 0879724072
Bruce L. Edwards, A Rhetoric of Reading: C. S. Lewis's Defense of Western Literacy. Center for the Study of Chrfistian Values in Literature, 1986. ISBN 0939555018
Alastair Fowler, 'C.S. Lewis: Supervisor', Yale Review, Vol. 91, No. 4 (October 2003).
Jocelyn Gibb (ed.), Light on C. S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1965 & Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1976. ISBN 0-15-652000-1
Douglas Gilbert & Clyde Kilby, C.S. Lewis: Images of His World. Eerdmans, 1973 & 2005. ISBN 0-8028-2800-0
Diana Pavlac Glyer The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community. Kent State University Press. Kent Ohio. 2007. ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0
David Graham (ed.), We Remember C.S. Lewis. Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-8054-2299-4
Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. Fully revised & expanded edition. HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-00-628164-8
Douglas Gresham, Jack's Life: A Memory of C.S. Lewis. Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-8054-3246-9
Douglas Gresham, Lenten Lands: My Childhood with Joy Davidman and C.S. Lewis. HarperSanFrancisco, 1994. ISBN 0-06-063447-2
William Griffin, C.S. Lewis: The Authentic Voice. (Formerly C.S. Lewis: A Dramatic Life) Lion, 2005. ISBN 0-7459-5208-9
Joel D. Heck, Irrigating Deserts: C. S. Lewis on Education. Concordia Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 0-7586-0044-5
David Hein, "A Note on C. S. Lewis's The Screwtape Letters." The Anglican Digest 49.2 (Easter 2007): 55-58. Argues that Lewis's portrayal of the activity of the Devil was influenced by contemporary events--in particular, by the threat of a Nazi invasion of Britain in 1940.
David Hein and Edward Hugh Henderson, eds., Captured by the Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and London: T & T Clark / Continuum, 2004. A study of Lewis's close friend the theologian Austin Farrer, this book also contains material on Farrer's circle, "the Oxford Christians," including C. S. Lewis.
Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Companion and Guide. HarperCollins, 1996. ISBN 0-00-627800-0
Walter Hooper, Through Joy and Beyond: A Pictorial Biography of C. S. Lewis. Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0-02-553670-2
Alan Jacobs, The Narnian: The Life and Imagination of C.S. Lewis. HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-076690-5
Carolyn Keefe, C.S. Lewis: Speaker & Teacher. Zondervan, 1979. ISBN 0-310-26781-1
Clyde S. Kilby, The Christian World of C. S. Lewis. Eerdmans, 1964, 1995. ISBN 0-8028-0871-9
W.H. Lewis (ed), Letters of C.S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1966. ISBN 0-00-242457-6
Kathryn Lindskoog, Light in the Shadowlands: Protecting the Real C. S. Lewis. Multnomah Pub., 1994. ISBN 0-88070-695-3
Susan Lowenberg, C. S. Lewis: A Reference Guide 1972–1988. Hall & Co., 1993. ISBN 0-8161-1846-9
Wayne Mardindale & Jerry Root, The Quotable Lewis. Tyndale House Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8423-5115-9
Markus Mühling, "A Theological Journey into Narnia. An Analysis of the Message beneath the Text", Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-60423-8
Joseph Pearce, C. S. Lewis and the Catholic Church. Ignatius Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89870-979-2
Thomas C. Peters, Simply C.S. Lewis. A Beginner's Guide to His Life and Works. Kingsway Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-85476-762-2
Justin Phillips, C.S. Lewis at the BBC: Messages of Hope in the Darkness of War. Marshall Pickering, 2003. ISBN 0-00-710437-5
Victor Reppert, C.S. Lewis's Dangerous Idea: In Defense of the Argument from Reason. InterVarsity Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8308-2732-3
George Sayer, Jack: C. S. Lewis and His Times. Macmillan, 1988. ISBN 0-333-43362-9
Peter J. Schakel, Imagination and the Arts in C. S. Lewis: Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds. University of Missouri Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8262-1407-X
Peter J. Schakel. Reason and Imagination in C. S. Lewis: A Study of "Till We Have Faces." Available online. Eerdmans, 1984. ISBN 0-8028-1998-2
Peter J. Schakel, ed. The Longing for a Form: Essays on the Fiction of C. S. Lewis. Kent State University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87338-204-8
Peter J. Schakel and Charles A. Huttar, ed. Word and Story in C. S. Lewis. University of Missouri Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8262-0760-X
Stephen Schofield. In Search of C.S. Lewis. Bridge Logos Pub. 1983. ISBN 0-88270-544-X
Jeffrey D. Schultz and John G. West, Jr. (eds.), The C.S. Lewis Readers' Encyclopedia. Zondervan Publishing House, 1998. ISBN 0-310-21538-2
G. B. Tennyson (ed.), Owen Barfield on C.S. Lewis. Wesleyan University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8195-5233-X.
Richard J. Wagner. C.S. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies. For Dummies, 2005. ISBN 0-7645-8381-6
Andrew Walker, Patrick James (ed.), Rumours of Heaven: Essays in Celebration of C.S. Lewis, Guildford: Eagle, 1998, ISBN 0863472508
Chad Walsh, C. S. Lewis: Apostle to the Skeptics. Macmillan, 1949.
Chad Walsh, The Literary Legacy of C. S. Lewis. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. ISBN 0-15-652785-5.
George Watson (ed.), Critical Essays on C. S. Lewis. Scolar Press, 1992. ISBN 0-85967-853-9
Michael White, C.S. Lewis: The Boy Who Chronicled Narnia. Abacus, 2005. ISBN 0-349-11625-3
Erik J. Wielenberg, God and the Reach of Reason. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-70710-7
A. N. Wilson, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. W. W. Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-32340-4

[edit] See also
Christian apologetics (field of study concerned with the defence of Christianity)
The Chronicles of Narnia
The Inklings
Pauline Baynes
G. E. M. Anscombe
George MacDonald

[edit] Notes
^ http://atheism.about.com/od/cslewisnarnia/a/biography.htm accessed September 15, 2007
^ Carpenter, Humphrey (1978). The Inklings. Allen & Unwin. Lewis was brought up in the Church of Ireland, and after his conversion joined the Church of England.
^ http://www.lamblion.com/articles/other/gems/Gems-02.php
^ Frequently Asked Questions About C.S. Lewis. “According to George Sayer, Lewis's friend and biographer, Lewis regarded the debate as a defeat, and felt humiliated by it:
"He told me that he had been proved wrong, and that his argument for the existence of God had been demolished. ...The debate had been a humiliating experience, but perhaps it was ultimately good for him. In the past, he had been too proud of his logical ability. Now he was humbled ....'I can never write another book of that sort' he said to me of Miracles. And he never did. He also never wrote another theological book. Reflections on the Psalms is really devotional and literary; Letters to Malcolm is also a devotional book, a series of reflections on prayer, without contentious arguments."”
^ "Was Jesus Mad, Bad, or God?", in Stephen T. Davis, Daniel Kendall, Gerald O'Collins, The Incarnation: an interdisciplinary symposium on the Incarnation of the Son of God (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 222–3.
^ http://songslyrics.selaplana.com/songs/international/cs-lewis-song-brooke-fraser retrieved September 9, 2007
^ N. T. Wright, "Simply Lewis: Reflections on a Master Apologist After 60 Years", Touchstone, March 2007 [1]

[edit] References
Barker, Dan (1992), written at Madison, Losing Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, Freedom from Religion Foundation, ISBN 1-877733-07-5
BBC News, Staff (2005), "Pullman attacks Narnia film plans", BBC News 2005 (16 October),
BBC News, Staff (2004), "City that inspired Narnia fantasy", BBC News 2004 (5 March),
Carpenter, Humphrey (2006), The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien and Their Friends, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-0077-4869-8
Dodd, Celia (2004), "Human nature: Universally acknowledged", The Times 2004 (05-08),
Drennan, Miriam (1999), "Back into the wardrobe with The Complete Chronicles of Narnia", BookPage,
Ezard, John (2002), "Narnia books attacked as racist and sexist", The Guardian 2002 (6-3),
Friends of Holy Trinity Church, Staff, History of the Building,
Gopnik, Adam (2005), "PRISONER OF NARNIA How C. S. Lewis escaped", The New Yorker 2005 (11–21),
Guardian Unlimited, Staff (2005), "If you didn't find Narnia in your own wardrobe…", Guardian Unlimited 2005 (04–12),
Guthmann, Edward (2005), "'Narnia' tries to cash in on dual audience", San Francisco Chronicle,
Haven, Cynthia (2006), "Lost in the shadow of C.S. Lewis' fame Joy Davidman was a noted poet, a feisty Communist and a free spirit", San Francisco Chronicle (no. 01-01),
Hooper, Walter (1979), written at London, They stand together: The letters of C. S. Lewis to Arthur Greeves (1914–1963), Collins, ISBN 0-00-215828-0
Hilliard, Juli (2005), "Hear the Roar", Sarasota Herald-Tribune 2005 (12–09),
Kelly, Clint (2006), "Dear Mr. Lewis", Response 29 (1),
Kreeft, Peter (1982), Between Heaven and Hell: A Dialogue Somewhere Beyond Death with John F. Kennedy, C. S. Lewis & Aldous Huxley, InterVarsity Press, 0-8778-4389-9
Lewis, C.S. (1946), written at London, The Great Divorce, Collins, 0-00-628056-0
Lewis, C.S. (1952), written at London, Mere Christianity, Collins, 0-00-628054-4
Lewis, C.S. (1942), written at London, The Screwtape Letters, Collins, 0-00-767240-3
Lewis, C.S. (1966), written at London, Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life, Harvest Books, 0156870118
Lindskoog, Kathyrn (2001a), Sleuthing C.S. Lewis: More Light In The Shadowlands, Mercer University Press, ISBN 0-8655-4730-0
Lindskoog, Kathyrn (2001b), Surprised by C.S. Lewis, George Macdonald, & Dante: An Array of Original Discoveries, Mercer University Press, ISBN 0865547289
Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, ISBN 0-1981-4405-9,
Martindale, Wayne & Jerry Root (1990), The Quotable Lewis, Tyndale House, ISBN 0-8423-5115-9
McDowell, Josh (2001), More Than a Carpenter, Kingsway Publications, ISBN 0-8547-6906-4
Murray, Iain (1990), David Martyn Lloyd-Jones: The Fight of Faith, 1939–1981, The Banner of Truth Trust, ISBN 0-8515-1564-9
Neven, Tom (2001), "In Lenten Lands", Le Penseur Réfléchit,
The Old Inn, Staff (2007), History of the Old Inn,
Pratt, Alf (1998), "LDS Scholars Salute Author C.S. Lewis At BYU Conference", The Salt Lake Tribune 1998 (December),
Tonkin, Boyd (2005), "CS Lewis: The literary lion of Narnia", The Independent 2005 (11–11),
Toynbee, Polly (2005), "Narnia represents everything that is most hateful about religion", The Guardian 2005 (December 5),

Archibald Low

Professor Archibald Montgomery Low (1888 - September 1956) was an English Astronautics engineer, research physicist and inventor, and author of more than 40 books.

Low has been called the "father of radio guidance systems" due to his pioneering work on guided rockets, planes and torpedoes. He was a pioneer in many fields though, often leading the way for others, but his lack of discipline meant he hardly ever saw a project through, being easily distracted by new ideas. If it weren't for this inability to see things to a conclusion, Low could well have been remembered as one of the great men of science. Many of his scientific contemporaries disliked him, due in part to his using the title Professor, which technically he wasn't entitled to do as he didn't occupy an academic chair. His love of the limelight and publicity probably also added to the dislike.
Early life
Low was born in Purley, London, the second son of John and Gertrude Low. His father was an engineer and Low's interest in all things mechanical and scientific was fired by visits to his father's place of work. The family moved to Erith in the London Borough of Bexley when Low was still a baby. He was sent to Preparatory school at Colet Court when his family had to visit Australia. A few years later he also got to visit Sydney Australia with his family. He recalls being amazed to find that telephones were fitted in every house. As a young boy Low was forever experimenting at home, building homemade steam turbines or conducting chemical experiments that brought havoc to his local neighbourhood and caused his parents to receive many complaints about the bangs, smells and gases created by young Archie.
At the age of 11 he was enrolled into St Paul's School, an institution where he didn't fit in, being as he put it "too much of an individual". One of his classmates for several years was Bernard Law Montgomery, whom Low recalled as being "rather dull".

Aged 16 Low entered the Central Technical College, an institution far more to his liking, here his abilities really started to show. Under the guidance of his mentor Professor Ashcroft, Low's mercurial mind was given free rein over many of the scientific disciplines, this lack of structured guidance though probably didn't help him in later life. During his time at the CTC Low designed a drawing device which he called "The Low flexible and adjustable curve". This device along with a dotted line pen and a self filling draughtsman's pen were marketed by Thornton's, a renowned instrument maker based in Manchester. He also spent a year devising and making a selector mechanism which allowed a lever when moved to fall into a pre-selected slot. It wasn't until 32 years later that pre-selected gears came in, long after Low had originally thought of them.

[edit] Early career
Low joined his uncle, Edward Low's engineering firm, "The Low Accessories and Ignition Company", which at the time was the second oldest engineering firm in the City of London. Unfortunately the company was in a constant struggle for solvency. Edward Low did what he could financially to help get his nephew's ideas off the ground, but what was really needed was a rich investor. During this pre-war period Low was constantly coming up with big new ideas, such as his Forced induction Engine, or gadgets like the whistling egg-boiler which he christened "The Chanticleer". It went on to sell very well, earning him some much-needed money. He also experimented with gas turbines, but the alloys available at that time wouldn't stand up to the required heat.

In May 1914 Low gave the first demonstration of what was to become television, he called it TeleVista. This demonstration was given to the Institute of Automobile Engineers and was entitled "Seeing By Wireless". Low's invention was crude and under-developed but the idea was there. The main deficiency was the Selenium cell used for converting light waves into electric impulses, which responded too slowly thus spoiling the effect.
The demonstration certainly garnered a lot of media interest with The Times reporting on May 30;

“ An inventor, Dr. A. M. Low, has discovered a means of transmitting visual images by wire. If all goes well with this invention, we shall soon be able, it seems, to see people at a distance. ”

On May 29 The Daily Chronicle reported;

“ Dr. Low gave a demonstration for the first time in public, with a new apparatus that he has invented, for seeing, he claims by electricity, by which it is possible for persons using a telephone to see each other at the same time. ”

Low, of course failed to follow up this early promising work, due in part to his temperamental failings and also of course the outbreak of World War I later that year.

[edit] The Great War

The Experimental Works staff of the RFC, Low is front centre.

When war broke out, Low joined the military and received officer training. After a few months he was promoted to Captain and seconded to the Royal Flying Corps, the precursor of the RAF. His brief was to use his civilian research to find a way to remotely control an aircraft, so it could be used as a guided missile. With two other officers (Captain poole and Lieutenant Bowen) under him, they set to work to see if it were possible. This project was called "Aerial Target" or AT a misnomer to fool the Germans into thinking it was about building a drone plane to test anti-aircraft capabilities. After they built a prototype, General Sir David Henderson (Director-General of Military Aeronatics) that the Royal Flying Corps Experimental Works should be created to build the first proper "Aerial Target" complete with explosive warhead. As head of the Experimental Works, Low was given about 30 picked men, including jewellers, carpenters and aircraftsmen in order to get the pilotless plane built as quickly as possible. The plane's trial took place on March 21 1917 at Upavon Central Flying School near Salisbury Plain, attended by 30-40 allied Generals. The AT was launched from the back of a lorry using compressed air (another first). Low and his team successfully demonstrated their ability to control the craft before engine failure led to its crash landing. At a later date an electrically driven gyro (yet another first) was added to the plane, but ultimately the "Aerial Target" project wasn't followed up after the war, due to the shortsightedness of military planners. In 1917 Low and his team also invented the first electrically steered rocket (the world's first wireless, or wire-guided rocket), almost an exact counterpart of the one used by the Germans in 1942 against merchant shipping. Low's inventions during the war were to a large extent before their time and hence were under-appreciated by the Government of the day, although the Germans were well aware of how dangerous his inventions might be. In 1915 two attempts were made to assassinate him; the first involved shots being fired through his laboratory window in Paul Street; the second attempt was from a visitor with a German accent who came to Low's office and offered him a cigarette, which upon analysis contained enough strychnine chloride to kill.

During World War II the Germans also made good use of Low's 1918 rocket guidance system and used it as one of the foundations for their V projects. So yet again Low was leading the way, only this time the wrong people followed.

Low should have made a considerable amount of money from these inventions, but his patents couldn't stay in force for the statutory period, as he was in the employment of the War Department everything he invented was as a part of his duties so he couldn't benefit financially from them.

[edit] Inter-war years
Not long after the war Low started the Low Engineering Company Ltd in association with the Hon. C. N. Bruce (later Lord Aberdare). The company offices were on Kensington High Street, and Low spent much of his time trying to bring his inventions to fruition. As usual though he was easily distracted by gadgets that he devised, taking his attention away from the more important work. One of the better gadgets was a motor scooter that Low invented and manufactured in conjunction with Sir Henry Norman.
Despite his best efforts, business wasn't his strong point. An example of this is the magazine he started up with his friend Lord Brabazon and others. It was entitled Armchair Science, Low helped edit it, and at one point the sales figures were 80,000 a month, yet it never seemed to make a profit and was sold off. Another of Low's delights was speed, especially racing cars or motorbikes. He was a regular attendee at Brooklands and at one point invented a rocket propelled bike and numerous other gadgets and improvements for the internal combustion engine. An example of Low's prescience is that he was worried about the number of road traffic accidents that were occurring and believed speed in cities should be restricted to 25 mph using modern radio methods to enforce it. One of Low's peeves was excess noise, to this end he invented an audiometer to measure and record noise in a visual form. He conducted experiments on the London Underground and achieved some success in pinpointing trouble spots and reducing their impact by use of shields over the wheels and padding of the interior panels.
In 1938 Low had lunch with a gentleman called William Joyce. Joyce wanted Low to contribute an article to a paper he helped run. Low declined the offer being too busy; it was only a couple of years later that Joyce gained infamy as Lord Haw-Haw.

A few of Low's inventions from this period are:

Using infra-red photography to check head space in engines;
A machine for reproducing photographs by radio;
An audiometer that was a forerunner of sound photography at high speed (used in engineering and architectural work);
A device for converting ordinary print to Braille using photo electric cells;
Cap-detonating sparkplug.

[edit] WWII and later
At the outbreak of World War II Low initially joined the Air Ministry in a civil capacity. His job was to examine captured German aircraft and prepare reports for British pilots to enable them to identify the weak points of the enemy aircraft. Later on he joined the Royal Pioneer Corps and was promoted to Major. Between experiments in his back garden laboratory, he gave frequent talks to service personnel on scientific matters. Low was frequently in bad health from the late 1930s onwards, having never fully recovered from a bout of pneumonia he suffered a few years earlier. Although nothing that he experimented with during the war ultimately came to fruition, he did have some interesting ideas:

A water bomb intended for use in rivers. It floated just beneath the surface, came up when needed and spread a kind of umbrella out of itself which would detonate when touched;
A bomb that when dropped on airfields would be buried to the hilt but leave trailing wires on the surface. An aircraft touching these wires would detonate the bomb.

[edit] Quotations
“ The telephone may develop to a stage where it is unnecessary to enter a special call-box. We shall think no more of telephoning to our office from our cars or railway-carriages than we do today of telephoning from our homes (1937) ”
“ The second stage in the development of space-ships could be the launching of what have been called 'space-platforms'...The rocket or space-station will travel round the earth in twenty four hours at most. The value of such stations might be very great; they might enable world-wide television broadcasts to be made; they would transmit data about cosmic rays; or solar radiation; and they might have incalculable military value (1950) ”
“ No team ever invents anything, they only develop one man's flash of genius ”

[edit] Later life
Low died in 1956 from a malignant tumour on his lung. He is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.

In 1976 Low was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame [1]

Gravestone, Brompton Cemetery, London
[edit] Bibliography
Low was a prolific author of science books. He aimed several of his books at the layman to try to nurture interest in science and engineering. Quite a few of his books contained predictions on scientific advancements.

As well as these non-fiction books he wrote four science fiction novels for the younger reader.

[edit] Non-fiction
The Two Stroke Engine:A manual of the coming form of the internal combustion engine (1916)
Wireless Possibilities (1924)
The Future (1925)
Tendencies of Modern Science (1930)
On My Travels(1930)
The Wonder Book of Inventions (1930)
Popular Scientific Recreations (1933)
Science in Wonderland (1935)
Recent Inventions (1935)
Great Scientific Achievements (1936)
Conquering Space and Time (1937)
Life and its Story (1937)
Home Experiments (1937)
Electrical Inventions (1937)
Science for the Home (1938)
What New Wonders! (1938)
Science in Industry (1939)
Modern Armaments (1939)
How We find Out (1940)
Mine and Countermine (1940)
The Way it Works (1940)
The Submarine at War (1941)
Romance of Fire (1941)
Science Looks ahead (1942)
Tanks (1942)
Musket to Machine-Gun (1942)
Facts and Fancies (1942)
Parachutes in Peace and War (1942)
Benefits of War (1943)
Tick-Tock (1944)
Six Scientific Years (1946)
How Secrets Work (1946)
Your World Tomorrow (1947)
They Made Your World (1949)
Look, Listen and Touch (1949)
It's Bound to Happen (1950)
The Past Presented (1952)
Electronics Everywhere (1952)
Wonderful Wembley Stadium (1953)
Thanks to Inventors (1954)

[edit] Fiction
Peter Down the Well (1933)
Adrift in the Stratosphere (1937)
Mars Breaks Through, or The Great Murchison Mystery
Satellite in Space (1956)

[edit] Appointments
Associate of the City and Guilds of London Institute
Member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers
Fellow of the Chemical Society
Fellow and President of the British Institute for Radio Engineers
Chairman for 24 years of the AutoCycle Union
Chairman of the RAC Motor Cycle Committee
Vice-Chairman and Chairman for 20 years of the British Automobile Racing Club
Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society
Principal of the British Institute of Engineering Technology
Fellow of the Institute of Electronics
One of the founder members, and President (1936-1951) of the British Interplanetary Society
Associated Hon. Asst, Professor of Physics at the Royal Ordnance College, by the Army Council

[edit] References
Low's patents
Low's bibliography at Copac.
He lit the lamp, Low's biography, written by Ursula Bloom, (introduction by Lord Brabazon), published in 1958.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archibald_Low"

Edward Lear

Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator and writer known for his literary nonsense, in poetry and prose, and especially his limericks, a form which he popularised.

He was born in Highgate, a suburb of London, the 20th child of Ann and Jeremiah Lear. He was raised by his eldest sister, Ann, twenty-one years his senior. At the age of fifteen, he and his sister had to leave the family home and set up house together. He started work as a serious illustrator and his first publication, at the age of 19, was Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1830. His paintings were well received and he was favourably compared with Audubon. Throughout his life he continued to paint seriously. He had a lifelong ambition to illustrate Tennyson's poems; near the end of his life a volume with a small number of illustrations was published, but his vision for the work was never realised. Lear briefly gave drawing lessons to Queen Victoria, leading to some awkward incidents when he failed to observe proper court protocol.

He did not keep good health. From the age of six until the time of his death he suffered frequent grand mal epileptic seizures, as well as bronchitis, asthma, and in later life, partial blindness. Lear experienced his first epileptic fit while sitting in a tree. Lear felt lifelong guilt and shame for his epileptic condition. His adult diaries indicate that he always sensed the onset of a fit in time to remove himself from public view. How Lear was able to anticipate his fits is not known, but many people with epilepsy report a ringing in their ears or an "aura" before the onset of a fit.

In 1846 Lear published A Book of Nonsense, a volume of limericks which went through three editions and helped popularise the form. In 1865 The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple was published, and in 1867 his most famous piece of nonsense, The Owl and the Pussycat, which he wrote for the children of his patron Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. Many other works followed.

Lear's nonsense books were quite popular during his lifetime, but a rumour circulated that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym, and the books' true author was the man to whom Lear had dedicated the works: his patron the Earl of Derby. Adherents of this rumour offered as evidence the facts that both men were named Edward, and that "Lear" is an anagram of "Earl".[1]

[edit] Lear's limericks
Edward Lear's nonsense works are distinguished by a facility of verbal invention and a poet's delight in the sounds of words, both real and imaginary. A stuffed rhinoceros becomes a "diaphanous doorscraper". A "blue Boss-Woss" plunges into "a perpendicular, spicular, orbicular, quadrangular, circular depth of soft mud". His heroes are Quangle-Wangles, Pobbles, and Jumblies. His most famous piece of verbal invention occurs in the closing lines of The Owl and the Pussycat:

They dined on mince, and slices of quince
Which they ate with a runcible spoon;
And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand,
They danced by the light of the moon,
The moon,
The moon,
They danced by the light of the moon.

The "runcible spoon", a Lear neologism, entered the language and is now found in many English dictionaries.

Limericks are invariably typeset as five lines today, but Edward Lear's limericks were published in a variety of formats. It appears that Lear wrote them in manuscript basically in as many lines as there was room for beneath the picture. In the first three editions, most are typeset as, respectively, three, five, and three lines. The cover of one edition [1] bears an entire limerick typeset in only two lines, thus:

There was an Old Derry down Derry, who loved to see little folks merry;
So he made them a book, and with laughter they shook at the fun of that Derry down Derry.

In Lear's limericks the first and last lines usually end with the same word, rather than rhyming. For the most part, they are truly nonsensical and devoid of any punch line or point; there is nothing in them to "get". They are completely free of the off-colour humour with which the verse form is now associated. A typical thematic element is the presence of a callous and critical "they". An example of a typical Lear limerick:

There was an Old Man of Aôsta,
Who possessed a large Cow, but he lost her;
But they said, 'Don't you see,
she has rushed up a tree?
You invidious Old Man of Aôsta!'

Among Lear's tremble-bembles and the chippy-wippy-sikki-tees can be found some very felicitous turns of phrase. Lear's self-portrait in verse, How Pleasant to know Mr. Lear, closes with this stanza, a pleasant reference to his own mortality:

He reads but he cannot speak Spanish,
He cannot abide ginger-beer;
Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish,
How pleasant to know Mr. Lear!

Edward Lear self portrait, illustrating a real incident in which he encountered a stranger who claimed that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym. Lear (on the right) is showing the stranger (left) the inside of his hat, with his name in the lining.
[edit] Works
Illustrations of the Family of the Psittacidæ (1832)
Tortoises, Terrapins, and Turtles by J.E. Gray
Views in Rome and its Environs (1841)
Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley Hall (1846)
Illustrated Excursions in Italy (1846)
Book of Nonsense (1846)
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Greece and Albania (1851)
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Southern Albania (1852)
Book of Nonsense and More Nonsense (1862)
Views in the Seven Ionian Isles (1863)
Journal of a Landscape Painter in Corsica (1870)
Nonsense Songs and Stories (1871)
More Nonsense Songs, Pictures, etc. (1872)
Laughable Lyrics (1877)
Nonsense Alphabets
Nonsense Botany (1888)
Tennyson's Poems, illustrated by Lear (1889)
Facsimile of a Nonsense Alphabet (1849, but not published until 1926)
The Scroobious Pip, unfinished at his death, but completed by Ogden Nash and illustrated by Nancy Ekholm Burkert (1968)
The Quangle-Wangle's Hat (unknown)

[edit] Others
Edward Lear's Parrots by Brian Reade, Duckworth (1949), including 12 coloured plates reproduced from Lear's Psittacidae
The 1970 Saturday morning cartoon Tomfoolery, based on the works of Lear and Lewis Carroll

[edit] References
^ Lear, Edward (1894). "Introduction", More Nonsense Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, etc..
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